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You can think of a class as a template for making many instances of the same kind or class of object.
You define a class once and then make many objects that belong to it. Objects are also known as instance. This data will be invisible to the outside of the class and can be accessed via member functions. These variables are called attribute of the object once an object is created. Here child class will inherit all or few member functions and variables of a parent class. This is also called a base class or super class. This is also called a subclass or derived class. For example function name will remain same but it take different number of arguments and can do different task.
Similarly functions can also be overloaded with different implementation. A set of braces enclosing any number of variable declarations and function definitions. Function definitions look much like standalone PHP functions but are local to the class and will be used to set and access object data.
Creating Objects in PHP Once you defined your class, then you can create as many objects as you like of that class type. Following is an example of how to create object using new operator. Next we will see how to access member function and process member variables. Calling Member Functions After creating your objects, you will be able to call member functions related to that object. There's methods to the madness. It's time to start using methods. Methods are what we call functions that belong to classes.
Let's examine these wording differences one more, shall we? It's worth taking the time now to learn these names. How do we define a method on our class? Well it's simple. In fact, you already know the format!
Let's create a simple function to say hello. We need to add the rounded brackets to the end of our method name, just as we did with functions. For example: We receive a friendly response from our class. We can include as many methods as we like within our class structures, so go ahead and make a few more methods to learn the syntax. In fact, you're going to need to.
When writing functions for your classes, you're likely going to want to access your class properties, or even call other class methods.
You can use it to access class properties and other methods from within a class method. Let's take a look at this in action. Let's break it up a little. First we'll take a look at the summary method. Finally, we append a PHP newline character for clarity. Finally, the summary method is called on the instance.
Let's take a look at the output that we receive from executing this code. Let's take a look at an example, shall we? Finally, the third method returns a string value. It's not a very practical example in the real world, but it does help to illustrate that function and method calls can be nested in a nearly endless fashion. Nearly endless, within limitations of memory, and the depth of the PHP call stack.
It's quite a large number by default though, you normally won't run into any problems unless you make a mistake with a loop. Constructors Constructors are special methods. They are called automatically when you create a new instance of the class.
This gives you a great opportunity to set your class properties to values that you might otherwise be unable to set. For example, the results of a function or method. Don't worry! It will soon become second nature.
How can we check if the constructor has been executed on instantiation? The constructor function in a class automatically launches as soon as the class is instantiated.
In the TellAll class, the results are immediately printed to the screen, whether you want them there or not.
So, as you will see, not all classes include a constructor function. With the exception of the Client class, self-launching is not recommended. Similarly, PHP files containing classes should be used by other modules classes and not self-launched.
The Client has different roles in the larger project, but the primary one is to make requests from the classes that make up the design pattern. Here, the Client is shown in relation to a revised version of the TellAll class. This new class used by the Client is different in several ways from TellAll that are more useful to an overall project and reusable in other projects.
The MobileSniffer class begins with the same user agent information, but the class makes it available in more useful ways with its properties and methods. Client class instantiates MobileSniffer class and can use its properties and methods Had a Client class instantiated automatically, the Client would have fewer options for how to use the MobileSniffer information. Learning OOP and design patterns relies heavily on such feedback. The MobileSniffer does not have to launch itself, and using a return statement, any class that calls MobileSniffer just gets the data.
The Client can then use that data in any way it wants. By allowing the Client to use the data in the most general way, it could do any number of things with it.
Had the data been preformatted in the MobileSniffer class, using it for identifying a CSS file would require stripping away the unneeded formatting.
Keep in mind that one of the most important features of design patterns is reuse of the objects. Even capturing the device may not be enough because some like the iPad and the iPad Mini have different screen resolutions in addition to different screen sizes. Suffice it to say that if you plan to create web pages for viewing on different devices, you will want a module in your system that can be updated without breaking your program.
So, no matter what the latest technique is to detect and respond to multiple devices, be prepared for change. However, if you preserve the structure of the two methods, findDevice and findBrowser , you can make all the changes and improvements you want, and the larger program will not crash.
You must imagine a much larger and more complex program and think about making changes. Then your debugging becomes a nightmare. One of the main functions of OOP and design patterns is the capacity to change a module without breaking the entire program. What About Speed? Just about every programmer wants a program to run at optimum speed, and to do that, we look at the best algorithms.
For now, though, we need to shift our attention to another kind of speed—the amount of time it takes to create and update a program. Likewise, having to revise an entire program because of a few lines of added code is an equally expensive use of time. The Speed of Development and Change Consider a contract you have to update and maintain a program for a customer. You have negotiated a set amount for ongoing updates, and you want both to satisfy your client and to spend a fair but limited amount of time on updates.
For example, suppose your customer has weekly sales on different products requiring ongoing text and image updates. One solution may be to set up a weekly update using the time function, and then all you have to do is add the most current image URL and text to a database. That would be a sweet maintenance deal, and you could keep several customers happy simultaneously.
Would you ever consider setting up a maintenance system where you had to rewrite the program every time you had to make a change? Probably not. That would be a very slow and expensive way of doing things. So where speed of revision is important, your program needs to consider the speed of both operation and development.
Algorithms handle speed of operations, and design patterns handle speed of development. The Speed of Teams Another speed issue can be found in working with teams. When dealing with larger and more complex programs, teams need to agree on and understand a common plan and goal to effectively and efficiently create and maintain large programs.
Among other things, OOP and design patterns provide a common language to speed along group work.